Adam M. Grant is an American psychologist and author who is currently a professor at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania specializing in organizational psychology. He received academic tenure aged 28, making him the youngest tenured professor at the Wharton School.

  • 100 Tricks to Appear Smart in Meetings

    Funny because it’s true. ??From the creator of the viral sensation “10 Tricks to Appear Smart in Meetings” (5+ million views and hundreds of thousands of shares) comes the must-have book you never knew you needed, ,. ??In it, you will learn how to appear smart in less than half the time it takes to actually learn anything.,You know those subtle tricks your coworkers are all guilty of? The constant nodding, pretend concentration, useless rhetorical questions? These tricks make them seem like they know what they???re doing when in fact they have no clue. This behavior is so ingrained, so subtle, and so often mistaken for true intelligence that identifying it, calling it out, or compiling it into an exhaustive digest has never been attempted. Until now.,Complete with illustrated tips, examples, and scenarios, , gives you actionable ways to use words like ???actionable,??? in order to sound smart. Every type of meeting is covered, from general meetings where you stopped paying attention almost immediately, to one-on-one meetings you zoned out on, to impromptu meetings you were painfully subjected to at the last minute. It???s all here.

  • 3 Dimensional

    A long-awaited photographic memoir from basketball superstar Dwyane Wade of the Miami Heat, beautifully designed with more than 100 all new photos from Wade???s life on and off the court.,For more than 15 years, Dwyane Wade has dazzled basketball fans with his on-court artistry and has built his personal brand into one of the most powerful ones in sports. In this beautiful 4-color memoir, featuring more than 100 never-before-seen photos from Bob Metelus, who has been documenting Wade???s career for more than a decade, Wade takes readers inside his fascinating life and career., moves from Wade???s challenging upbringing on the South Side of Chicago through his college career at Marquette, where he went from unheralded recruit to one of college basketball???s greatest stars, to his extraordinary years with the Miami Heat, with whom he won three NBA championships and was named an All-Star 13 times. The book is centered on the essential principles that have guided Wade throughout his career: being an exceptional teammate and leader. As Wade details, while talent can make you a star, becoming a champion entails sacrifice: putting the broader team goals before your own ego. Wade has lived this credo, from his days playing alongside Shaq (with whom he won his first championship), to the ???Big 3??? with Lebron and Bosh, up through the 2018-19 season, when he mentored the Heat???s promising yet young roster in his final year as a player. Off the court, too, these same values have shaped his private life, helping him be a supportive husband and partner to Gabrielle Union and an exemplary role model for his children., is a deep dive into the mind and heart of one of the most compelling basketball players of all time. Coinciding with a documentary about Wade???s final NBA season, it is the definitive inside look at the life and career of one of the sport???s biggest stars.

  • A Beginner???s Guide to the End

    ???A gentle, knowledgeable guide to a fate we all share??? (,): the first and only all-encompassing action plan for the end of life.,???There is nothing wrong with you for dying,??? hospice physician B.J. Miller and journalist and caregiver Shoshana Berger write in ,. ???Our ultimate purpose here isn???t so much to help you die as it is to free up as much life as possible until you do.???,Theirs is a clear-eyed and big-hearted action plan for approaching the end of life, written to help readers feel more in control of an experience that so often seems anything but controllable. Their book offers everything from step-by-step instructions for how to do your paperwork and navigate the healthcare system to answers to questions you might be afraid to ask your doctor, like whether or not sex is still okay when you???re sick. Get advice for how to break the news to your employer, whether to share old secrets with your family, how to face friends who might not be as empathetic as you???d hoped, and how to talk to your children about your will. (Don???t worry: if anyone gets snippy, it???ll likely be their spouses, not them.) There are also lessons for survivors, like how to shut down a loved one???s social media accounts, clean out the house, and write a great eulogy.,An honest, surprising, and detail-oriented guide to the most universal of all experiences, , is ???a book that every family should have, the equivalent of Dr. Spock but for this other phase of life??? (, bestselling author Dr. Abraham Verghese).

  • A Second Chance

    What if you were only known for the worst thing you’ve ever done?,A Second Chance is about new starts, forgiveness, shame, and the power of possibility. ,Don’t you deserve a second chance? Don’t we all? ,Catherine Hoke founded Defy Ventures, a revolutionary organization that transforms the lives of people with criminal histories. It heals families, strengthens communities, creates jobs, and incubates small businesses. But mostly, Defy helps us find our humanity, regardless of whether we’ve been to prison or not.,This is the book that everyone is talking about, and for good reason. You might have heard Cat talking with Tim Ferriss on his podcast, or read about her work on Seth Godin’s blog.,”This is the bravest book I’ve read in years.” – Bill Hybels, Willow Creek,By sharing her personal story of a second chance, and then introducing us to the people she serves, Cat takes us on a life-changing journey. She helps us understand the methods that are used by the Defy team and how they persevere in the face of daunting odds. A Second Chance is a book about the change that Defy creates, yes, but also about changing your own life.,”This inspiring book shows how it’s possible for people who have been cast aside in society to turn their lives around and start giving back to that society.” – Adam Grant, bestselling author,A Second Chance is about one woman’s vision and her relentless effort to make it real but it’s also about building a community that makes a difference. Defy is based on a unique inside/outside partnership. It only works because of the generous work of everyone in Defy’s volunteer community, and this book teaches us what it means to lead from within.,”I’ve never seen anything like Defy, and I’ve been in corrections for 31 years.” – Warden Ducart, Pelican Bay State Prison,”If you care about our society, you have to read this book.” – Joe Moglia, Chairman, TD Ameritrade

  • A Uterus Is a Feature, Not a Bug

    A rallying cry for working mothers everywhere that demolishes the “distracted, emotional, weak” stereotype and definitively shows that these professionals are more focused, decisive, and stronger than any other force.,Working mothers aren???t a liability. They are assets you???and every manager and executive???want in your company, in your investment portfolio, and in your corner.,There is copious academic research showing the benefits of working mothers on families and the benefits to companies who give women longer and more flexible parental leave. There are even findings that demonstrate women with multiple children actually perform better at work than those with none or one.,Yet despite this concrete proof that working mothers are a lucrative asset, they still face the “Maternal Wall”???widespread unconscious bias about their abilities, contributions, and commitment. Nearly eighty percent of women are less likely to be hired if they have children???and are half as likely to be promoted. Mothers earn an average $11,000 less in salary and are held to higher punctuality and performance standards. Forty percent of Silicon Valley women said they felt the need to speak less about their family to be taken more seriously. Many have been told that having a second child would cost them a promotion.,Fortunately, this prejudice is slowly giving way to new attitudes, thanks to more women starting their own businesses, and companies like Netflix, Facebook, Apple, and Google implementing more parent-friendly policies. But the most important barrier to change isn???t about men. Women must rethink the way they see themselves after giving birth. As entrepreneur Sarah Lacy makes clear in this cogent, persuasive analysis and clarion cry, the strongest, most lucrative, and most ambitious time of a woman???s career may easily be after she sees a plus sign on a pregnancy test.

  • Accidental Presidents

    The strength and prestige of the American presidency has waxed and waned since George Washington. , looks at eight men who came to the office without being elected to it. It demonstrates how the character of the man in that powerful seat affects the nation and world.,Eight men have succeeded to the presidency when the incumbent died in office. In one way or another they vastly changed our history. Only Theodore Roosevelt would have been elected in his own right. Only TR, Truman, Coolidge, and LBJ were re-elected.,John Tyler succeeded William Henry Harrison who died 30 days into his term. He was kicked out of his party and became the first president threatened with impeachment. Millard Fillmore succeeded esteemed General Zachary Taylor. He immediately sacked the entire cabinet and delayed an inevitable Civil War by standing with Henry Clay???s compromise of 1850. Andrew Johnson, who succeeded our greatest president, sided with remnants of the Confederacy in Reconstruction. Chester Arthur, the embodiment of the spoils system, was so reviled as James Garfield???s successor that he had to defend himself against plotting Garfield???s assassination; but he reformed the civil service. Theodore Roosevelt broke up the trusts. Calvin Coolidge silently cooled down the Harding scandals and preserved the White House for the Republican Herbert Hoover and the Great Depression. Truman surprised everybody when he succeeded the great FDR and proved an able and accomplished president. Lyndon B. Johnson was named to deliver Texas electorally. He led the nation forward on Civil Rights but failed on Vietnam., adds immeasurably to our understanding of the power and limits of the American presidency in critical times.

  • Alive at Work

    Poll after poll has confirmed that an astonishing number of workers are disengaged from their work. Why is this happening? And how can we fix the problem?,In this bold, enlightening book, social psychologist and professor Daniel M. Cable takes leaders into the minds of workers and reveals the surprising secret to restoring their zest for work.,Disengagement isn’t a motivational problem, it’s a biological one. Humans aren’t built for routine and repetition. We’re designed to crave exploration, experimentation, and learning–in fact, there’s a part of our brains, which scientists have coined “the seeking system,” that rewards us for taking part in these activities. But the way organizations are run prevents many of us from following our innate impulses. As a result, we shut down.,Things need to change. More than ever before, employee creativity and engagement are needed to win. Fortunately, it won’t take an extensive overhaul of your organizational culture to get started. With small nudges, you can personally help people reach their fullest potential.

  • All You Have to Do Is Ask

    A set of tools for mastering the one skill standing between us and success: the ability to ask for the things we need to succeed.,Imagine you???re on a deadline for a big project, and feeling overwhelmed. Or you’re looking for a job, but can’t seem to get your foot in the door. Or you’re dying for tickets to a sold out concert, and all your leads have gone cold.,What do these problems have in common? They can all be solved simply by reaching out to a colleague, friend, or wider network and making an ask.,Studies show that asking for help makes us better and less frustrated at our jobs. It helps us find new opportunities and new talent. It unlocks new ideas and solutions, and enhances team performance. And it helps us get the things we need outside the workplace as well. And yet, we rarely give ourselves permission to ask. Luckily, the research shows that asking???and getting???what we need is much easier than we tend to think.

  • Be Fearless

    is researched-based call to action for those seeking to live extraordinary lives and bring about transformational change.,Weaving together storytelling, practical tips and inspiration, the book will teach you how to put the five fearless principles to work so that you too can spark the sorts of remarkable breakthroughs that can impact the world. Philanthropist, investor, and technology pioneer Jean Case brings to life the five Be Fearless principles common to the people and organizations that bring about transformational change.,When National Geographic Chairman Jean Case set out to investigate the core qualities of great change makers, past and present, from inventors to revolutionaries, she found five surprising traits they all had in common. These weren???t wealth, privilege, or even genius. What all of these exceptional men and women shared was that they had chosen to make a ???big bet,??? take bold risks, learn from their failures, reach beyond their bubbles, and let urgency conquer fear.,Throughout ,, Jean vividly illustrates these principles through storytelling???from her own transformational life experiences, to Jane Goodall???s remarkable breakthroughs in understanding and protecting chimpanzees, to celebrity chef Jos?? Andr??s??? decision to be a ???first responder??? and take his kitchen to the sites of devastating hurricanes to feed the hungry, to Madame C.J. Walker???s vision to build a hair care empire that would employ thousands across the country, and more. She shares new insights to stories you might think you know???like Airbnb???s tale of starting from scratch to transform the hospitality industry, to John F. Kennedy???s history-making moonshot???and gems from changemakers you???ve never heard of.

  • Big Potential

    Bestselling author Shawn Achor shows how to unlock hidden sources of potential in ourselves and others.,In a world that thrives on competition and individual achievement, we are measuring and pursuing potential all wrong. By pursuing success in isolation – pushing others away as we push ourselves too hard – we are not just limiting our potential, we are becoming more stressed and disconnected than ever.,In his highly anticipated follow-up to The Happiness Advantage, Achor reveals a better approach. Drawing on his work in 50 countries, he shows that success and happiness are not competitive sports. Rather, they depend almost entirely on how well we connect with, relate to, and learn from each other.,Just as happiness is contagious, every dimension of human potential – performance, intelligence, creativity, leadership ability and health – is influenced by those around us. So when we help others become better, we reach new levels of potential, as well. Rather than fighting over scraps of the pie, we can expand the pie instead.,Small Potential is the limited success we can attain alone. BIG Potential is what we can achieve together. Here, Achor offers five strategies – the SEEDS of Big Potential–for lifting the ceiling on what we can achieve while returning happiness and meaning to our lives.,The dramatic shifts in how we approach work today demand an equally dramatic shift in our approach to success. Big Potential offers a new path to thriving in the modern world.

  • Blueprint

    For too long, scientists have focused on the dark side of our biological heritage: our capacity for aggression, cruelty, prejudice, and self-interest. But natural selection has given us a suite of beneficial social features, including our capacity for love, friendship, cooperation, and learning. Beneath all of our inventions — our tools, farms, machines, cities, nations — we carry with us innate proclivities to make a good society.,In Blueprint, Nicholas A. Christakis introduces the compelling idea that our genes affect not only our bodies and behaviors, but also the ways in which we make societies, ones that are surprisingly similar worldwide.,With many vivid examples — including diverse historical and contemporary cultures, communities formed in the wake of shipwrecks, commune dwellers seeking utopia, online groups thrown together by design or involving artificially intelligent bots, and even the tender and complex social arrangements of elephants and dolphins that so resemble our own — Christakis shows that, despite a human history replete with violence, we cannot escape our social blueprint for goodness.,In a world of increasing political and economic polarization, it’s tempting to ignore the positive role of our evolutionary past. But by exploring the ancient roots of goodness in civilization, Blueprint shows that our genes have shaped societies for our welfare and that, in a feedback loop stretching back many thousands of years, societies are still shaping our genes today.

  • Brave New Work

    When fast-scaling startups and global organizations get stuck, they call Aaron Dignan. In this book, he reveals his proven approach for eliminating red tape, dissolving bureaucracy, and doing the best work of your life.,He’s found that nearly everyone, from Wall Street to Silicon Valley, points to the same frustrations: lack of trust, bottlenecks in decision making, siloed functions and teams, meeting and email overload, tiresome budgeting, short-term thinking, and more.,Is there any hope for a solution? Haven’t countless business gurus promised the answer, yet changed almost nothing about the way we work?,That’s because we fail to recognize that organizations aren’t machines to be predicted and controlled. They’re complex human systems full of potential waiting to be released.,Dignan says you can’t fix a team, department, or organization by tinkering around the edges. Over the years, he has helped his clients completely reinvent their operating systems–the fundamental principles and practices that shape their culture–with extraordinary success.,Imagine a bank that abandoned traditional budgeting, only to outperform its competition for decades. An appliance manufacturer that divided itself into 2,000 autonomous teams, resulting not in chaos but rapid growth. A healthcare provider with an HQ of just 50 people supporting over 14,000 people in the field–that is named the “best place to work” year after year. And even a team that saved $3 million per year by cancelling one monthly meeting.,Their stories may sound improbable, but in Brave New Work you’ll learn exactly how they and other organizations are inventing a smarter, healthier, and more effective way to work. Not through top down mandates, but through a groundswell of autonomy, trust, and transparency.,Whether you lead a team of ten or ten thousand, improving your operating system is the single most powerful thing you can do. The only question is, are you ready?

  • Brave, Not Perfect

    In a book inspired by her popular TED talk, ,bestselling author Reshma Saujani empowers women and girls to embrace imperfection and bravery.,Imagine if you lived without the fear of not being good enough. If you didn’t care how your life looked on Instagram, or worry about what total strangers thought of you. Imagine if you could let go of the guilt, and stop beating yourself up for tiny mistakes. What if, in every decision you faced, you took the bolder path?,Too many of us feel crushed under the weight of our own expectations. We run ourselves ragged trying to please everyone, all the time. We lose sleep ruminating about whether we may have offended someone, pass up opportunities that take us out of our comfort zones, and avoid rejection at all costs.,There’s a reason we act this way, Reshma says. As girls, we were taught to play it safe. Well-meaning parents and teachers praised us for being quiet and polite, urged us to be careful so we didn’t get hurt, and steered us to activities at which we could shine.,The problem is that perfect girls grow up to be women who are afraid to fail. It’s time to stop letting our fears drown out our dreams and narrow our world, along with our chance at happiness.,By choosing bravery over perfection, we can find the power to claim our voice, to leave behind what makes us unhappy, and go for the things we genuinely, passionately want. Perfection may set us on a path that feels safe, but bravery leads us to the one we’re authentically meant to follow.,In ,, Reshma shares powerful insights and practices to help us override our perfect girl training and make bravery a lifelong habit. By being brave, not perfect, we can all become the authors of our biggest, boldest, and most joyful life.

  • Broadcasting Happiness

    We are all broadcasters. We are constantly broadcasting information to others, even if we don???t say a word. Managers broadcast to their teams during meetings. Team members broadcast to clients. Clients broadcast to potential clients. And the messages we choose to broadcast shape others??? views of the world.,Our words can move other people from a fear-based mindset in which they see obstacles as insurmountable, to a positive mindset where they see that change is possible, get unstuck, and take action. What makes the difference is what we choose to broadcast. Using scientifically proven communication strategies to ripple out positive change to others, we increase their happiness and success at work, as well as our own, instantly making us more effective leaders.,New research from the fields of positive psychology and neuroscience shows that small shifts to the way we communicate can create big ripple effects on business outcomes, including 19% greater accuracy, 31% higher productivity, 25% greater performance ratings, 37% higher sales, and 23% lower levels of stress.,Drawing from her experience as a national CBS News anchor, a positive psychology researcher, and her work with many of the top Fortune 500 companies, Michelle Gielan shares the strategies that have created results in Broadcasting Happiness.,In this book, you???ll learn how to choose the right message, get through to others, especially during moments of high stress, build resilience in the midst of challenges, and use non-verbal communication to your advantage. And, most important, you???ll understand why positivity is the most underutilized resource available.

  • Chasing My Cure

    The powerful memoir of a young doctor and former college athlete diagnosed with a rare disease who spearheaded the search for a cure–and became a champion for a new approach to medical research.,avid Fajgenbaum, a former Georgetown quarterback, was nicknamed the Beast in medical school, where he was also known for his unmatched mental stamina. But things changed dramatically when he began suffering from inexplicable fatigue. In a matter of weeks, his organs were failing and he was read his last rites. Doctors were baffled by his condition, which they had yet to even diagnose. Floating in and out of consciousness, Fajgenbaum prayed for a second chance, the equivalent of a dramatic play to second the game into overtime.,Miraculously, Fajgenbaum survived–only to endure repeated near-death relapses from what would eventually be identified as a form of Castleman disease, an extremely deadly and rare condition that acts like a cross between cancer and an autoimmune disorder. When he relapsed while on the only drug in development and realized that the medical community was unlikely to make progress in time to save his life, Fajgenbaum turned his desperate hope for a cure into concrete action: Between hospitalizations he studied his own charts and tested his own blood samples, looking for clues that could unlock a new treatment. With the help of family, friends, and mentors, he also reached out to other Castleman disease patients and physicians, and eventually came up with an ambitious plan to crowdsource the most promising research questions and recruit world-class researchers to tackle them. Instead of waiting for the scientific stars to align, he would attempt to align them himself.,More than five years later and now married to his college sweetheart, Fajgenbaum has seen his hard work pay off: A treatment he identified has induced a tentative remission and his novel approach to collaborative scientific inquiry has become a blueprint for advancing rare disease research. His incredible story demonstrates the potency of hope, and what can happen when the forces of determination, love, family, faith, and serendipity collide.

  • Clearer, Closer, Better

    Successful people literally see the world differently. Now an award-winning scientist explains how anyone can leverage this “perception gap” to their advantage.,When it comes to setting and meeting goals, we may see–quite literally–our plans, our progress, and our potential in the wrong ways. We perceive ourselves as being closer to or further from the end than we may actually be depending on our frame of reference. We handicap ourselves by looking too often at the big picture and at other times too long at the fine detail. But as award-winning social psychologist Emily Balcetis explains, there is great power in these misperceptions. We can learn to leverage perceptual illusions if we know when and how to use them to our advantage.,Drawing on her own rigorous research and cutting-edge discoveries in vision science, cognitive research, and motivational psychology, Balcetis offers unique accounts of the perceptual habits, routines, and practices that successful people use to set and meet their ambitions. Through case studies of entrepreneurs, athletes, artists, and celebrities–as well as her own colorful experience of trying to set and reach a goal–she brings to life four powerful yet largely untapped visual tactics that can be applied according to the situation.

  • Connected Strategy

    The Internet of Things, robo investment advisers, wearable fitness devices, remote health care operations . . . business executives in many industries are currently being inundated with a confusingly and exhaustingly broad range of technological developments that enable new business models.,There is, however, a common thread among all of these developments: firms are fundamentally changing how they connect with their customers. Rather than having occasional, episodic interactions–where customers realize they have an unmet need and then look for ways to fill it–firms are striving to be continuously connected to their customers, providing services and products as the needs arise, even before customers become aware of them.,Firms such as Nike, Disney, Progressive Insurance, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Medtronic, Hewlett-Packard, and Tesco are developing and competing on ,: creating superior customer experiences through connectivity while simultaneously driving dramatic improvements in operational efficiencies and reshaping their industries.,Strategy and operations experts Nicolaj Siggelkow and Christian Terwiesch reveal the emergence of connected strategies across a broad array of industries and show how these strategies work, how they eliminate the trade-off between superior customer experience and low cost, and how companies can formulate, design, and implement them. In showing how to create a connected strategy, the authors reveal the four pathways–respond-to-desire, curated offerings, coaching, and automatic execution–for turning occasional, episodic interactions into continuous relationships. Siggelkow and Terwiesch show you how to:,Reshape the connections between customers, suppliers, and your firm Create the right revenue model Make the best technology choices to support your strategy,Integrating rich examples, how-to advice, and tools in the form of “workshop chapters” throughout, this book is the ultimate resource for creating connected relationships with your customers and redefining the connections in your industry.

  • Conscious

    As concise and enlightening as , and ,, this mind-expanding dive into the mystery of consciousness is an illuminating meditation on the self, free will, and felt experience.,What is consciousness? How does it arise? And why does it exist? We take our experience of being in the world for granted. But the very existence of consciousness raises profound questions: Why would any collection of matter in the universe be conscious? How are we able to think about this? And why should we?,In this wonderfully accessible book, Annaka Harris guides us through the evolving definitions, philosophies, and scientific findings that probe our limited understanding of consciousness. Where does it reside, and what gives rise to it? Could it be an illusion, or a universal property of all matter? As we try to understand consciousness, we must grapple with how to define it and, in the age of artificial intelligence, who or what might possess it. ,offers lively and challenging arguments that alter our ideas about consciousness???allowing us to think freely about it for ourselves, if indeed we can.

  • Creative Quest

    A unique new guide to creativity from Questlove???inspirations, stories, and lessons on how to live your best creative life.,Questlove???musician, bandleader, designer, producer, culinary entrepreneur, professor, and all-around cultural omnivore???shares his wisdom on the topics of inspiration and originality in a one-of-a-kind guide to living your best creative life. ,In , Questlove synthesizes all the creative philosophies, lessons, and stories he???s heard from the many creators and collaborators in his life, and reflects on his own experience, to advise readers and fans on how to consider creativity and where to find it. He addresses many topics???what it means to be creative, how to find a mentor and serve as an apprentice, the wisdom of maintaining a creative network, coping with critics and the foibles of success, and the specific pitfalls of contemporary culture???all in the service of guiding admirers who have followed his career and newcomers not yet acquainted with his story. ,Whether discussing his own life or channeling the lessons he???s learned from forefathers such as George Clinton, collaborators like D???Angelo, or like-minded artists including Ava DuVernay, David Byrne, Bj??rk, and others, Questlove speaks with the candor and enthusiasm that fans have come to expect. , is many things???above all, a wise and wide-ranging conversation around the eternal mystery of creativity.

  • Cringeworthy

    magazine’s “Science of Us” editor explains the compelling psychology of awkwardness, and asks: what if the moments that make us feel most awkward are actually valuable?,Have you ever said goodbye to someone, only to discover that you’re both walking in the same direction? Or had your next thought fly out of your brain in the middle of a presentation? Or accidentally liked an old photo on someone’s Instagram or Facebook, thus revealing yourself to be a creepy social media stalker?,Melissa Dahl, editor of ,magazine’s “Science of Us” website, has. After a lifetime of cringing, she became intrigued by awkwardness: a universal but underappreciated emotion. In this witty and compassionate book, Dahl explores the oddest, cringiest corners of our world. She chats with strangers on the busy New York City subway, goes on awkward friend dates using a “Tinder-for-friendship” app, takes improv comedy lessons, and even reads aloud from her (highly embarrassing!) middle school diary to a crowd of strangers.,After all of that, she realizes: Awkward moments are opportunities to test yourself. When everyone else is pretending to have it under control, you can be a little braver and grow a little bigger–while remaining true to your awkward self. And along the way, you might find that awkward moments unite us in our mutual human ridiculousness.